Mild Steel: The Ultimate Guide
Mild steel is a versatile material for a wide range of applications. However, before choosing mild steel, you should know the physical properties, chemical properties and practical applications, just to mention a few. In this guide, you will find all information about mild steel
What Is Mild Steel?
This is a form of carbon steel with low level carbon content of less than 0.25% of weight. It also has other elements which are only iron and ferrite.
Advantages Of Mild Steel
Comparing the cost of all other types of steel, mild steel is the cheapest.
Mild steel has good magnetic properties that allow recycling without tempering with its quality.
It has good magnetic properties due to the high ferrite and iron contents in the mild steel.
You can easily weld mild steel to form various parts and shapes you need.
You can easily bend or subject mild steel to any tensile stress without deforming.
Here, mild steel undergoes heat treatment, followed by quenching process. Ideally, this will improve surface hardening, resistance to wear and tear.
Welding Mild Steel
MIG Welding Mild Steel – This is a welding process where a wire electrode in the solid form is fed using the welding gun, to the base metal. An electric arm is then set to start the heating and melting of the mild steel as it allows the joining of the two metals together. It is suitable for mild steel.
Arc Welding – You will hold both the welding gun and the filler metal at the same time. In the process of holding them, an electric arm starts to heat and melt mild steel.
Machining Mild Steel
Cutting Mild Steel – The main purpose of cutting mild steel is to change the shape.
The cutting process starts by putting the steel onto a table surface. Then clean the steel well before cutting begins. This is to prevent any traces of residues that can result in precision cutting. Remember, there are many metal cutting techniques.
Annealing Mild Steel
Annealing is a method where metals pass through heat treatment to improve ductility. Annealing mild steel involves:
Recovery stage – There is an introduction of a furnace to enable raising the temperature of mild steel to an extent where it relieves internal stresses.
Recrystallization stage – Mild steel gets heated to a level that is above its crystallization temperature and does not exceed its melting point.
Grain growth stage – The Mild steel cools at a specific cooling rate forming a more ductile material.
Hardening Mild Steel
Mild steel hardening undergoes three stages:
- Heating of the steel material until it turns red by concentrating heat on a specific part of the steel.
- Use tongs to remove the steel from the high-temperature heat. Then allow it to cool in a high carbon concentration case to harden the compound.
- Heat the steel again, then remove it and put it in clean water that is cold in temperature. The outcome is mild steel with the hard thick outer surface with a flexible interior.
Bending Mild Steel
Bending is a process that results in the formation of a channel, “U” or “V” shape on a straight axis of a material. You can easily bend mild steel depending on your unique requirements. Basically, you can make a range of shapes and parts through metal bending.
Grades Of Mild Steel
It is highly ductile. Also, this carbon steel grade is low. The grade contains a percentage value of 0.1% carbon content with an average percentage of 0.45 manganese content.
This grade of mild steel comprises of carbon content of 0.1%, manganese at 0.4% and 0.4% of silicon content. It also has other various elements. The contents of this grade EN 1.0301 makes mild steel highly weldable.
It is very strong and ductile in nature. Besides, this grade has a carbon constituent ranging between 0.18% and 0.23% and manganese at 0.3% to 0.6%.
Mild Steel Chemical Composition
Some of the main chemical compositions include:
- Carbon – A carbon content ranging from 0.16% to 0.29%.
- Silicon – Silicon content of 0.25% to 0.75%
- Sulphur – A maximum of 0.03%
- Aluminium – 015% – 0.06%
- Copper – 25% -0.55%
- Iron – It has a high amount of iron. This normally forms the remaining percentage.
Mild Steel Vs Carbon Steel
|Expensive to purchase||Less expensive to obtain|
|Contains high level of carbon content of 0.05-1.70%||Has low level of carbon content ranging from 0.05 to 0.25%|
|Conducive under high temperatures, hence can undergo heat treatment||It is not conducive under high temperatures|
|Very strong||Less stronger to carbon|
Mild Steel Vs Stainless Steel
|It is ductile in nature||It is not ductile|
|Weldable||Has low weldability level|
|Corrodes easily||Highly resistant to corrosion|
|Its major constituents are iron and carbon||Its major constituents are chromium and iron|
|Less expensive to obtain||More expensive to buy|
|Less stronger||Very strong due to its alloy content of chromium.|
|Magnetic in nature||Stainless steel is not magnetic|
Physical Properties of Mild Steel
Magnetic nature – It largely comprises of high amounts of ferrite and iron that result to the magnetic property.
Weldable – The ductility characteristic of mild steel enables it to undergo various fabrication procedures, welding being part of it.
Ductile in nature – The material consists of a mechanical property that allows it to bend when under tensile stress without deforming.
Machinable – Its characteristic of having allow carbon content gives it a machinable property. It is easy to cut and form various shapes.
Great malleability – The material has excellent tensile strength enabling it only bend or deform during high stress, but does not shutter down.
Density – This is the mass over the unit volume of mild steel. Mild steel has a density of 7850 kg/m3.
Mild Steel Profiles
Some of the most common profiles of mild steel available include the following:
Tube: A cylindrical metal structure that is hollow and majorly applicable in the conveyance of gaseous and liquid products.
Angle: An angle is a structural “L” shaped cross section applicable in the construction of buildings.
Telescopic Tube: An object with cylindrical sub-sections that can uniformly fit into one another. This is by allowing the options of either making it longer or shorter if need be.
Flat: It is a thin mild steel strip with a thickness ranging from 12mm to 100mm. The flat offers strengthening support to the construction materials.
Pipe: A hollow cylindrical section mostly of circular cross-section, applicable in the conveyance of fluids.
T Section: This is a constructional component with a “T” structure cross section. It can also be referred to as a “T” beam. The metal material used in making “T” section is generally carbon steel.
Box Section: This is a hollow section made of mild steel, which exists as a square or a rectangular box generally applicable in construction and fabrication.
Channel: Structure with a letter “C” shape. The C- shaped structure forms from the post hot-rolling of Mild steel material. A channel has particular specific radii on the inside of its corners that enable them to be very strong. It offers maximum support to the steel angles because of its rigidity.
Round: This is a metal form with circular top and bottom with diameters ranging from as small as ¼ inches to 12 inches.
Applications Of Mild Steel
Tubes made from mild steel are the most preferable when making pipes for many projects. It is easy to weld the pipes because they are ductile and very flexible under high pressures.
Mild steel offer maximum aesthetic value to the gates and fences. It is also strong enough to offer maximum security.
Its malleability property makes it ideal for the steel sheets creation, which are useful in car body parts and other elements.
Its maximum strength makes is a better choice for making the mild steel beams used in the construction of steel frame buildings.
People Also Ask:
|Not hard||Hard and brittle due to high carbon content|
|Not a strong metal||A highly strong metal|
|An alloy of metals||Pure metal|
By checking on its physical properties such as ductility. Of course, you can also examine the magnetic property resulting from the large amount ferrite and iron.
Mild steel rusts under the exposure of water and oxygen
Stainless steel is harder than mild steel because it has high carbon content.
It has a yield strength of 250MPa.
Mild steel contains very minimum carbon content hence hindering it from changing the crystalline structure, thus cannot be tempered.
Poor tensile strength
Subjection to applications under heavy stress leads to the failing of mild steel.
Cannot undergo heat treatment.
It has low carbon content making it incapable to result to significant changes during heat treatment.
This is by adding a proper measure of coating to the steel so as to improve on resistance to harsh conditions.